List of Irregular Verbs in English

What is a verb?

A verb is a fundamental part of speech in English and many other languages. It is a word that describes an action, occurrence, or state of being. Verbs play a crucial role in constructing sentences and conveying meaning. Here are some key points about verbs:

Action Verbs:

These verbs describe physical or mental actions. For example: "run," "eat," "think."

Linking Verbs:

Linking verbs connect the subject of a sentence to a subject complement (usually an adjective or a noun) that describes or identifies the subject. Common linking verbs include "is," "am," "are," "was," and "were."

Auxiliary (Helping) Verbs:

These verbs are used alongside the main verb to express various tenses, moods, and aspects. Common auxiliary verbs include "have," "be," and "do."

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs:

Verbs can also be categorized based on their ability to take a direct object. Transitive verbs require a direct object, while intransitive verbs do not.


Verbs can be used in different tenses to indicate when an action occurred or will occur. Common tenses include present, past, and future.


Verbs can also have different aspects, indicating the completeness or duration of an action. Common aspects include simple, continuous (progressive), perfect, and perfect continuous.

Verbs are essential for constructing sentences and conveying information about actions, states of being, and events in language. Understanding verb conjugation, tense, and usage is crucial for effective communication in English and other languages.

What are Irregular Verbs in English?

Irregular verbs are verbs in the English language that do not follow the regular conjugation patterns for tense and form changes. Unlike regular verbs, which typically add "-ed" to the base form to create past tense forms or the past participle, irregular verbs have unique and often unpredictable changes in their forms.

List of English Irregular Verbs

infinitive simple past past participle
be was/were been
bear bore borne/born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet* bet bet
bid bid, bade bid, bidden
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn*** burnt burnt
burst burst burst
bust* bust bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived/dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream*** dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade, forbad forbidden
forecast* forecast forecast
forget forgot forgotten
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got got, gotten
give gave given
grind ground ground
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn*** learnt learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie** lay lain
light* lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
prove* proved proven
put put put
quit* quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw*** sawed sawed/sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew* sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shear* sheared shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show* showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
sneak**** snuck snuck
sow sowed sown
speak spoke spoken
speed* sped sped
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spit spat, spit spat, spit
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank, stunk stunk
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell* swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive* throve thrived
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden, trod
understand understood understood
wake* woke woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
wet* wet wet
win won won
wind wound wound
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written